Dry, thick, and raised patches on the skin are the most common sign of psoriasis. These patches are often covered with a silvery-white coating called scale, and they tend to itch.
While patches of thickened, dry skin are common, psoriasis can cause many signs and symptoms.
What you see and feel tends to vary with the:
- Type of psoriasis you have
- Places psoriasis appears on your body
- Amount of psoriasis you have
Types of psoriasis
The following pictures show what each type psoriasis can look like on the skin. You’ll also see how psoriasis can affect your nails and joints. Plaque (plack) psoriasis: About 80% to 90% of people who have psoriasis develop this type.
When plaque psoriasis appears, you may see:
- Patches of thick, raised skin called plaques
- Scale (a dry, thin, and silvery-white coating) covers some plaques
- Plaques of different sizes
- Smaller plaques joining together to form larger plaques
Plaques usually form on the scalp, elbows, knees, or lower back — but they can develop anywhere on the skin. It’s common for plaques to itch, but try not to scratch. Scratching can cause the patches to thicken. To stop the itch, dermatologists recommend treating the psoriasis.
Guttate (gut-tate) psoriasis: When someone gets this type of psoriasis, you often see tiny bumps appear on the skin quite suddenly. The bumps tend to cover much of the torso, legs, and arms. Sometimes, the bumps also develop on the face, scalp, and ears. No matter where they appear, the bumps tend to be:
- Small and scaly
- Salmon-colored to pink
- Temporary, clearing in a few weeks or months without treatment
When guttate psoriasis clears, it may never return. Why this happens is still a bit of a mystery. Guttate psoriasis tends to develop in children and young adults who’ve had an infection, such as strep throat. It’s possible that when the infection clears so does guttate psoriasis. It’s also possible to have:
- Guttate psoriasis for life
- See the guttate psoriasis clear and plaque psoriasis develop later in life
- Plaque psoriasis when you develop guttate psoriasis
There’s no way to predict what will happen after the first flare-up of guttate psoriasis clears.
Inverse psoriasis: This type of psoriasis develops in areas where skin touches skin, such as the armpits, genitals, and crease of the buttocks. Where the inverse psoriasis appears, you’re likely to notice:
- Smooth, red patches of skin that look raw
- Little, if any, silvery-white coating
- Sore or painful skin
Other names for this type of psoriasis are intertriginous psoriasis or flexural psoriasis.
Pustular psoriasis: This type of psoriasis causes pus-filled bumps that usually appear only on the feet and hands. While the pus-filled bumps may look like an infection, the skin is not infected. The bumps don’t contain bacteria or anything else that could cause an infection. Where pustular psoriasis appears, you tend to notice:
- Red, swollen skin that is dotted with pus-filled bumps
- Extremely sore or painful skin
- Brown dots (and sometimes scale) appear as the pus-filled bumps dry
Pustular psoriasis can make just about any activity that requires your hands or feet, such as typing or walking, unbearably painful.
Pustular psoriasis (generalized): Serious and life-threatening, this rare type of psoriasis causes pus-filled bumps to develop on much of the skin.
Also called von Zumbusch psoriasis, a flare-up causes this sequence of events:
- Skin on most of the body suddenly turns dry, red, and tender.
- Within hours, pus-filled bumps cover most of the skin.
- Often within a day, the pus-filled bumps break open and pools of pus leak onto the skin.
- As the pus dries (usually within 24 to 48 hours), the skin dries out and peels (as shown in this picture).
- When the dried skin peels off, you see a smooth, glazed surface.
- In a few days or weeks, you may see a new crop of pus-filled bumps covering most of the skin, as the cycle repeats itself.
Anyone with pustular psoriasis also feels very sick, and may develop a fever, headache, muscle weakness, and other symptoms. Medical care is often necessary to save the person’s life.
Erythrodermic psoriasis: Serious and life-threatening, this type of psoriasis requires immediate medical care. When someone develops erythrodermic psoriasis, you may notice:
- Skin on most of the body looks burnt
- Chills, fever, and the person looks extremely ill
- Muscle weakness, a rapid pulse, and severe itch
The person may also be unable to keep warm, so hypothermia can set in quickly.
Most people who develop this type of psoriasis already have another type of psoriasis. Before developing erythrodermic psoriasis, they often notice that their psoriasis is worsening or not improving with treatment. If you notice either of these happening, see a board-certified dermatologist.
Nails: While many people think of psoriasis as a skin disease, you can see signs of it elsewhere on the body. Many people who have psoriasis see signs of the disease on their nails.
Nail psoriasis: With any type of psoriasis, you may see changes to your fingernails or toenails. About half of the people who have plaque psoriasis see signs of psoriasis on their fingernails at some point2. When psoriasis affects the nails, you may notice:
- Tiny dents in your nails (called “nail pits”)
- White, yellow, or brown discoloration under one or more nails
- Crumbling, rough nails
- A nail lifting up so that it’s no longer attached
- Buildup of skin cells beneath one or more nails, which lifts up the nail
Treatment and proper nail care can help you control nail psoriasis.
Joints: When psoriasis affects the joints, it causes a disease known as psoriatic arthritis.
Psoriatic arthritis: If you have psoriasis, it’s important to pay attention to your joints. Some people who have psoriasis develop a type of arthritis called psoriatic arthritis. This is more likely to occur if you have severe psoriasis.
Most people notice psoriasis on their skin years before they develop psoriatic arthritis. It’s also possible to get psoriatic arthritis before psoriasis, but this is less common.
When psoriatic arthritis develops, the signs can be subtle. At first, you may notice:
- A swollen and tender joint, especially in a finger or toe
- Heel pain
- Swelling on the back of your leg, just above your heel
- Stiffness in the morning that fades during the day
Like psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis cannot be cured. Treatment can prevent psoriatic arthritis from worsening, which is important. Allowed to progress, psoriatic arthritis can become disabling.
You’ve just seen how psoriasis can affect your skin, nails, and joints. Psoriasis can also affect other parts of your body.
Wondering if you have psoriasis? A board-certified dermatologist can tell you. Dermatologists specialize in diagnosing and treating diseases that affect the skin, hair, and nails.
If you have psoriasis, your dermatologist can create a treatment plan that meets your individual needs. This type of treatment plan has many benefits. It can relieve symptoms like itch. It can help you see clearer (or clear) skin. It can also prevent psoriasis from worsening.
How do dermatologists diagnose psoriasis?
To diagnose psoriasis, a dermatologist will examine your skin, nails, and scalp for signs of this condition.
Your dermatologist will also ask if you have any:
- Symptoms, such as itchy skin
- Joint problems, such as pain and swelling or stiffness when you wake up
- Blood relatives who have psoriasis
- Recent changes in your life, such as an illness or increased stress
Sometimes, a dermatologist also removes a bit of skin. By looking at the removed skin under a microscope, a doctor can confirm whether you have psoriasis.
How do dermatologists treat psoriasis?
If you have psoriasis, a dermatologist can create a treatment plan to meet your individual needs.
To create this plan, your dermatologist will consider the:
- Type(s) of psoriasis you have
- Places psoriasis appears on your body
- Severity of the psoriasis
- Impact psoriasis has on your life
- Other medical conditions you have
Your treatment plan may include medication you apply to your skin, advice to help you care for your skin, and tips to help prevent flare-ups. To control psoriasis, some people also need light treatments or medication that works throughout the body.
You can find out about the different treatments for psoriasis at:
Your dermatologist will want to see you for follow-up appointments.
These appointments can be very helpful because your dermatologist can:
- Find out how well the treatment plan is working for you
- Modify your treatment plan if necessary
- Watch for signs of psoriatic arthritis, a disease that you want to catch early
- Assess your risk of developing other diseases that are more common in people with psoriasis
- Help you set realistic expectations for managing your psoriasis